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What is Jitter in Networking?
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If you know what delay is, jitter is simply the difference in packet delay. In other words, jitter is measuring timedifference in packet inter-arrival time.

It is a specific phenomenon that normally exists in bigger packet switched networks. As a time shift phenomenon it usually does not cause any communication problems. Actually, TCP/IP is responsible for dealing with the jitter impact on communication.

On the other hand, when we speak about Voice traffic and VoIP network environment this can bean issue. When someone is sending VoIPcommunication at a normal interval, (let’s say one frame every 10 ms), thosepackets could have stuck somewherein-betweenthe network and not arrive at expected regular pace to the destined station. It is not usual, but the packets could take different routes or get load-balanced through two similar paths where one of those is congested in that moment.

That’s the whole jitter phenomenon. We can look at it as the anomalyin tempo, with whichpacket is expected to come and the time he was late to really get there.

In this image above, you can notice that the time it takes for packets to besend is not the same as the time in which he will arrive at the receiver side. One of the packets encounters some delay on his way and it is receivedlittle later than it was expected. Jitter buffers are entering the story. They will try to remedy packet delay if required and if possible.VoIP packets in networks have very changeable packet inter-arrival intervals because they are usually smaller than normal data packets, and are therefore more numerous, with bigger chance to get some delay.

In order to better tune the jitter correction, best practice is to note packets who arrive late and, with that base data, calculate a ratio of those packets and packets that are successfully transferred. Using that ratio, you can adapt the jitter bufferto somepredictable amount describing the number of packets late arriving. This is the best way totune jitter buffer.

It can be confusing at first. Thejitter and total delay are not even close to bethe same thing. Having a lot of jitter in the network will probably increase the total delay to, but this should be avoided. It will usually mean that, because there is more jitter, you need more jitter buffer, to be able to compensate.

The buffers are not endless. In case of heavy jitter situation, it is better to drop some packets or have fixed size buffers, instead of creating delays in the jitter buffers itself.

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